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        新航道北京學校SAT寫作文章詳情

        新SAT寫作滿分備考技巧之論據分析

        2019/08/0203:57來源:互聯網  

        • 字體:

               SAT分析性寫作幾乎都包含論據分析。很多學生在寫作時常遇到一個問題:分不清不同論據在文章中的作用。本篇文章就這個問題進行詳細的解答,希望幫助同學們離成功的SAT寫作更近一步!

          議論文作者通常采用多種論據來支持想要表達的觀點,如:

          ● Fact

          ● Statistics,

          ● Anecdote,

          ● Current Events,

          ● Quotations from experts’ opinion

          ● Examples,

          ● Results of Study/Survey/Experiment等等。

          根據論據在文章中所起的作用可以將論據分為四類,以The Official SAT Guide中的 "Let There Be Dark " 這篇文章中的論據為例:

          1、第一類論據是難以辯駁的事實、數據或研究Fact, Statistics, Results of Study/Survey/Experiment:“Our bodies need darkness to produce the melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep.”

          這類論據訴諸讀者的邏輯,其作用無外乎為作者觀點提供客觀的支撐,給予作者更多的可靠性從而讓讀者信服。

           學生范例:

          The author is sure to include hard evidence, an irreplaceable component of argument, in his article to support his claim. He refers to the function of darkness for our cancer prevention and sleep. This makes his work credible and believable and readers are confident of what we are being told is correct and true. The objective non-refutable fact backs up the claim that darkness is valuable. Without the evidence, his passage would not mean a thing to us readers and we would never be able to believe what he has said.

          2、第二類論據是引用專家或專業機構的觀點Quotations from experts’ opinion:“…the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for ‘light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels.”

          這類論據訴諸權威,其之所以能夠支持作者的觀點,在于讀者相信專家或專業機構的可靠性,認為他們是相應領域的權威,從而把對他們的信任轉移到對作者的信任。

            學生范例:

          The author is able to build his point with the agreement of a respected authority, which we assume has great authority and are trustworthy. He quotes the American Medical Association’s support for reducing light pollution in the paragraph. The citation from the authoritative source gives writer credibility so the reader is more likely to agree with him. Through citing authorities’ opinion, the author successfully transfers their trust and belief in those authorities to his own argument.

          3、第三類論據是時下的新聞或例子Current events and Examples:“Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life and the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. In a world awash with electric light…how would Van Gogh have given the world his ‘Starry Night’?”

          這類論據在支撐作者觀點的同時,幫助讀者理解作者的觀點在現實中的實際應用,與自身產生聯系從而更可能支持觀點,這類論據既訴諸讀者的邏輯又訴諸讀者的情感。

           學生范例:

          The author’s argument is furthered by his use of specific examples. By alluding to the function of night in religion, art, philosophy, and more specifically in“Starry Night”, a painting famous for its dark night, the author informs reader that there are something invaluable about darkness. This urges the readers to think that they should preserve this night; otherwise we would not miss a lot of human treasures. The cited examples help readers to see a particular demonstration of nights’ importance—how it plays out in the real world, and thus readers are more likely to agree with the author’s claim.

          4、第四類論據是個人經歷或名人軼事Anecdote and Personal Experience:“At my family's cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars.”

          這類論據訴諸作者的情感而非邏輯,通過經歷的描述將話題變得更加生動人性化,同時這類描述通過措辭通常會飽含情感如憂傷、憤怒、開心等,讀者也會產生相應的情緒從而支持作者的觀點。

          ▲ 學生范例:

          The author starts his article off by recounting a personal story – a night spent on a Minnesota lake with skies “in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars”, which resonates with readers. Bringing in personal experience adds a human element to his argument that the night is too wonderful to lose. By drawing in his readers with a personal anecdote, the author generates a strong emotional connection and the readers will be filled with the same awe and love for the serene night with the author. This provides a baseline of sorts for readers to find credence with the author’s claims.

          通過以上議論文中各類論據的作用和寫法的詳細介紹,相信大家在寫作中可以不用再懼怕分析論據了,同時也可以把SAT寫作中學到的批判性思維應用到以后的學習和生活當中。

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